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Introduction to mining machinery
Excavating machinery is a kind of earthmoving machine that uses bucket to excavate material above or below the surface of the machine and is loaded into the transport vehicle or unloaded to the stacker. The main materials are soil, coal, sediment and rock and ore..
In general engineering, about 60% of the earthwork, 80% of the stripping amount and the amount of excavation of the open pit mine are completed by digging machine. Mining machinery is divided into two types of single bucket excavator and multi bucket excavator. The operation of single bucket excavator is periodic, and the operation of multi bucket excavator is continuous.
* first excavator is based on human or animal power for digging deep river dredger, bucket capacity is generally not more than 0.2 ~ O.3 m?; 1833 ~ 1836, the American Otis design and manufacture of the first steam engine, Ironwood mixed structure, semi rotary, rail mounted single bucket excavator, productivity 35 meters? /, but because of poor economy without application. The improved steam shovel was formally produced in 70s and applied to strip stripping. In 1880, the first semi - rotary steam shovel with tractors as the chassis appeared.
From the early twentieth Century to the late 40s, excavators entered the stage of diversification of power and walking equipment. In 1910, the first motor driving the excavator; appeared 1912 gasoline and kerosene engine driven rotary excavator produced in 1916; the diesel engine driven generator single bucket excavator; 1924 diesel engine direct drive for single bucket excavator; crawler walking device introduced in 1910. With the development of the automobile industry, the tire walking device is widely used in small excavator. In 30s, there was a walking walk device. In the middle of 50s, Germany and France developed the full rotary hydraulic excavator successively, and the development of excavator entered a new stage.
Multi bucket excavator also has a history of more than 100 years. France in 1860 produced the world's early, more mature structure of multi bucket excavator, used for the Suez canal excavation project. In 1889, the United States produced a multi bucket trenching machine, digging 0.29 meters wide, 1.4 meters deep ditch. In the late nineteenth Century, bucket wheel excavators were widely used in German lignite mining. By 1958, each bucket had reached 3600 litres. In 1977, the Federal Republic of Germany created the world's largest bucket excavator, with a productivity of 240 thousand meters per day.
Generally, the excavating machine is composed of power device, transmission device, walking device and working device. Single bucket excavator and bucket wheel excavator, as well as turntable, multi bucket excavator, as well as material delivery device.
The power unit has a diesel engine, an electric motor, a diesel generator set or an external power supply converter unit. Diesel engines and motors are mostly used in medium and small mining machines. They are driven by a prime mover, both of which are interchangeable. Diesel generator sets and external power converter units are used for large and medium-sized excavating machines, which are driven by a plurality of motors.
The walking device is mainly used to support the machine, the machine transformation work position and transfer operation sites; in addition, the bucket chain excavator and wheel excavator, with continuous walking device and cutting soil. A crawler walking device, tire, walking, rail, float and Trailer etc..
Site requirements fixed, ground pressure is low when using crawler; site changeable tyre; for special construction conditions and must set up a special track, by rail; mining under water soil type; walking device of small excavator without power, with a trailer; working site fixed, machine weight, foot type. The walking type walking device is mostly used for large and medium-sized dragline excavators and bucket wheel excavators in single bucket excavator
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